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GeoSierra News

August 2019     Preston New Road, Lancashire, UK. Fracturing operations to begin shortly on PNR-2 well. Review of earlier operations on PNR-1Z and Preese                                  Hall well stimulations, indicate a high risk of induced seismicity with minimal gas production enhancement - see PNR-1Z Review.The stimulations of                              the stages of the PNR-1Z well, initially induced hydraulic near vertical fractures, whose height growth was terminated by the presence of                                                  slickensided bedding planes, which were encountered in the PNR-1 well, as reported by Clarke et al., 2019 (SPE-195563-MS). Subsequently, the                                  Bottom Hole Pressures (BHPs) rose sufficiently to exceed the normal stress of the near horizontal bedding planes, opening these hyper-stress                                        sensitive bedding planes and thus significantly increasing the risk of induced seismicity, without any or minimal gas production enhancement. This                                  heightened risk of induced seismicity can be avoided by placing limits on BHPs during injection.

                          The lack of any tiltmeter monitoring in the HFP (Hydraulic Fracturing Plan) for PNR-2 is rather strange, since it would conclusively show whether the                              frac opening was vertical or near horizontal, whereas seismic monitoring can be misleading into where frac opening is occurring since it is in                                            response to slip.

                          Shutin data analyses of the PNR-1Z well hydraulic fracturing stages show conclusively and unambiguously, that near horizontal bedding planes                                    (dipping at ~20° to the west) were opened by the excessive hydraulic fracturing pressures, leading to a significant heightened risk of induced                                          seismicity. GeoSierra notified the relevant UK agencies, (Environment Agency, Oil & Gas Authority, and the British Geological Survey) of these issues                            and the significance risks of induced seismicity in early August 2019, prior to the starting of hydraulic fracturing operations at the Preston New Road                                PNR-2 well.

                          As of the 18th August 2019, GeoSierra has had no response from any of the UK responsible agencies concerning the significant risk of induced                                      seismicity due to excessive BHPs occurring during the hydraulic fracturing operations at Preston New Road.




April 2019          Prior to the Brumadinho Tailings Dam collapse, rainfall was 3.6 times greater than the mean rainfall of the prior 10 years. February and March rainfall                             of this year were 3x the mean rainfall of the prior 10 years, see below figure. What preventative measures are being implemented to increase the                                   stability and reduce the risk of collapse of existing unsafe tailings dams? News reporting doesn't mention any remedial actions being taken to                                         increase the stability of existing unsafe tailings dams, especially those unsafe tailings dams located in the Minas Gerais state of Brazil.





February 2019   In an analysis initiated by the recent Brumadinho Tailings Dam failure, GeoSierra discovered significant surface water ponding had occurred on                                       the crest of the Brumadinho Tailings Dam just a month before it tragically failed. Upstream tailings dams, such as the Brumadinho tailings dam,                                   are especially prone to failure due to an increase in the pore water pressure; such as caused by surface water ponding on the dam crest, by either                                 dam instability or piping failure.

                           This ponding of surface water is the most likely cause of the Brumadinho tailings dam failure. Surface waters infiltrate into the dam over time, thus                                   significantly raising the dam's pore water pressures, which reduce the tailings mean effective stress, until liquefaction is triggered. Once liquefaction                               is triggered, in this case it is called "Static Liquefaction", the failure process following the liquefaction triggering is extremely dynamic and leads to                                   flow liquefaction, as earlier seen in the tragic Aberfan disaster of 1966, and numerous tailings dams failures over the years, and more recently the                                   Fundao tailings dam collapse of 2015, and now this recent tragic flow liquefaction failure, with its significant loss of human life and environmental                                     damage.

                           BBC News reporter: Ricardo Senra, article of 22 February 2019. “There was a spring above the dam, but the pipe was broken,” he says. “The water                               was falling directly on to the dam. So much so that the middle of the dam was no longer dry. This was more than a month ago.”

                            GeoSierra's electro-osmosis system, when activated by seismic or motion sensors, stabilizes such high risk structures; such as an upstream                                        tailings dam, during an earthquake event and/or due to excessive pore water pressures.The electro-osmosis system can be powered continuously                                  at low current to dewater and/or permeation grout the tailings, with automatic control to raise the current to stabilize the dam, due to sensed                                            motion or excessive pore pressures. Following the dewatering/stabilization of the tailings by electro-osmosis, decommissioning work can begin. If                                    the electro-osmosis stabilization system was not implemented prior to decommissioning, there are extremely high risks of tailings dam failure                                          being initiated and induced by decommissioning activities


              Brumadinho Tailings Dam

        Rainfall over the past 5 months of 2018, was 3.6 times greater than the mean of the past 10 years.



January 2019    GeoSierra Environmental, Inc. is finalizing the design report for a 200' deep iron PRB (Permeable Reactive Barrier) at the Savannah River Site, SC.                               Full scale construction will be begin later this year. Any PRB enquiries contact Deborah Schnell. The PRB construction at Norco, CA is almost                                       complete.

                           Grant Hocking, GeoSierra's Founder and President, was co-inventor of four (4) patent applications in the past 18 months, relating to biomedical                                     applications, waveform analysis and biomedical devices. This month, he has filed three (3) patent applications as the sole inventor, relating to                                         hypertension, blood pressure, vascular blood vessel properties, ageing and exercise impact on hypertensive state, and biomedical devices to                                         measure hypertensive state, vascular properties and vasodilation, and also measure blood pressure without a cuff. These technologies are being                                   developed for commercial use by VoluMetrix, of whom Kyle Hocking (Grant's son) is CEO.


January 2018   GeoSierra Environmental, Inc. is mobilizing for the installation of an iron PRB (Permeable Reactive Barrier) for groundwater remediation in Norco,                                  CA.The PRB is 300' long, to be constructed from 20' depth down to a total depth of 95' BGS along a busy city street. Any PRB enquiries                                                  contact Deborah Schnell. The PRB construction will be monitored in real time by GeoSierra's active resistivity imaging technology.




August 2017  -  Funding for the Geothermal Energy trial cell has been approved, subject to the bench scale performance of the lithium enrichment cell, for the final                                 design, land and lease acquisition for construction in the 4th qtr 2018 in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial County, California. The trial cell                                 will extract groundwater geothermal brines, store and cycle supercritical carbon dioxide in the sub-surface for electric power generation, and extract                               lithium from the geothermal brines. Revenue for the trial cell is from four streams: 1) carbon dioxide storage, 2) electric power generation,                                               3) minerals extracted from the groundwater brine, primarily Lithium, and 4) sale of desalinated groundwater.

                          The lithium enrichment cell uses alternating polarity electrodes constructed from calcined petroleum coke proppant as developed by Asbury Carbons                              in association with GeoSierra, for GeoSierra's ERG - electric resistive heating enhanced bitumen/heavy oil recovery process - see Electric EOR. The                            calcined coke proppant is coated with different compounds to produce the alternating polarity lithium and chloride ion selective electrodes, that extract                            the lithium ions from the geothermal brines and concentrates the lithium ions in a battery grade lithium concentrate solution.

                          Without significant lithium revenue, baseload geothermal electrical power generation in southern California is not an attractive investment, primarily                                 due to the lack of a meaningful tax on carbon emissions, the regulated electrical pricing is tied to the current natural gas price, and the low                                               revenue/MWhr for baseload electricity. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as the subsurface working fluid, a large portion of the baseload generation                               can be provided as on-demand peak generation capacity, thus significantly increasing the revenue/MWhr. The performance of the lithium                                                 enrichment cell and the siting of the field trial in high lithium groundwater are both crucial for a successful field trial of the lithium enrichment                                             process.

                           GeoSierra Environmental, Inc. has been awarded a design/build contract for a 900' long, deep (96' bgs), iron PRB for groundwater remediation in a                                southern Californian city. The PRB is to be constructed along a busy residential street. Any PRB enquiries contact Deborah Schnell.




March 2017  - GeoSierra recently completed a review of the UK 2011 Preese Hall well stimulations. A copy of this review                                                                                                 and recommended alternate stimulation methods are contained in this review report. GeoSierra presented                                                                                               to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in January on the importance of anelasticity in petroleum                                                                                                       geomechanics - view the abridged presentation.





December 2016                                                                   GeoSierra Environmental Inc. completed the construction of 1,100' PRB at the former Scotia Navy Depot.



October 2016                                                                  GeoSierra is under contract to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to assist MIT in a large multi-                                                                                                  year research project on hydraulic fracturing, with specific emphasis into the interaction and propagation of                                                                                                hydraulic fractures with natural fractures and formation interfaces, funded by a major national oil company.


August 2016                                                                    Cascade Environmental Holdings LLC acquires GeoSierra Environmental Inc and Panther Technologies                                                                                                     Inc to enhance their environmental capabilities and services - see announcement.


March 2016                                                                      GeoSierra's geothermal electrical power generation system in enhanced hot ductile low perm formations is                                                                                                 in final feasibility assessment study for field pilot deployment mid-2017.

                                                                                          GeoSierra's carbon energy storage system in ductile turbidite reservoir legacy oil and gas fields is in final                                                                                                   feasibility assessment study for field pilot deployment mid-2017.

                                                                                          GeoSierra Environmental Inc. is finalizing the design and mobilizing for the construction of a 1,000' long                                                                                                     iron proppant Permeable Reactive Barrier at the former Scotia Navy Depot, Glenville, NY. The PRB                                                                                                            is to be constructed to a total depth of 110', and it's injected geometry will be mapped in real-time                                                                                                               by GeoSierra's active resistivity mapping technology. For enquiries into design/build services of PRBs                                                                                                        in the USA contact Deborah Schnell at dschnell@geosierraenv.com.


March 2015                                                                      The planned in situ heavy oil recovery ERG field trial, using electric resistive heating with gravity                                                                                                                drainage is on indefinite hold due to the low price of Kern River crude.

                                                                                          The stimulation of the light oil turbidite reservoirs in the Southern San Joaquin Valley using the Azi-Frac                                                                                                     technology is postponed until the price of WTI stabilizes at $65/bbl or higher.


October 2014                                                                   GeoSierra Environmental Inc. recently completed an iron proppant PRB at a SuperFund site in                                                                                                                   Peterborough, New Hampshire for groundwater remediation. More than twenty (20) iron proppant PRBs                                                                                                     have been installed in the USA by GeoSierra's trenchless technology.

                                                                                          GeoSierra's electrically conductive -8/+20 proppant and grahite electrodes are now ready for deployment in                                                                                               the EOR field trial of the ERG system, i.e. electrical resistive heating with gravity drainage. The first trial                                                                                                     is planned to be conducted in a shallow heavy oil unconsolidated sand reservior in western USA.

                                                                                          GeoSierra's electrically conductive calcined petroleum coke proppant is available in three size                                                                                                                     distributions: coarse -8/+20, medium -20/+40 and fine -40 mesh.

                                                                                          GeoSierra's retrofit stimulation tool for stimulating deep existing wells in turbidite formations is not                                                                                                               expected to be field deployable until mid-2015.



New Technology Magazine Article

 September 2013 & September 2011

Above article describes GeoSierra's Azi-Frac and Halliburton's X-Drain technology for heavy oil enhanced recovery, plus an earlier article from the same magazine of September 2011.


47th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symp.  June 2013

Grant Hocking presented at the symposium in San Francisco

Hocking, G., T. W. Cavender, T. Hunter and G. Li. 2013. "Comparisons of Plane Propagation from Dilating Casing and Conventional Perforations when Stimulating the Milk River Formation", 47th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, Paper# ARMA 13-254, June. Presentation


SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary         June 2013

Grant Hocking presented at the conference in Calgary

Hocking, G. and D. A. Walters. 2013 "Vertical Single-Well SAGD with Multiple Producers", SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, Paper# SPE 165433, June. Presentation 


SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary         June 2012

Travis Cavender presented at the conference in Calgary

Hocking, G., T. W. Cavender, J. Person and T. Hunter. 2012 "Single-Well SAGD Field Installation and Functionality Trials", SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, Paper# SPE 157739, June. Presentation


Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference     November 2011

Grant Hocking presented at the conference in Calgary

Hocking, G., T. W. Cavender and J. Person. 2011 "Single-Well SAGD: Overcoming Permeable Lean Zones and Barriers", Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Paper# SPE 148832, June. Presentation



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